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INTERNATIONAL SLAVONIC UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS AND BUSINESS
HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION AND PROTECTION. UNO ACTIVITY .
Essay of the second year student
Tutor - N. Dolinina
2. UNO ACTIVITY IN HUMAN RIGHTS SPHERE
3. THE INTERNATIONAL GEAR OF PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
4. HUMAN RIGHTS IN UKRAINE
5. POLITICAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS IN UKRAINE
6. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC RIGHTS
7. FREEDOM OF VOICE
In the period after acceptance of the Declaration of State
Independence in Ukraine was considerably made more active state
and political activity in the sphere of human rights. A
parlamentary committee on human rights is created, there is
accepted a number of acts, aimed at strenghtening of legal
status of citizens, legal base of protection of human rights and
freedom is updated as a whole.
A set of nation-wide, regional and local right-defence
organizations were registered, international contacts with
interstate and non-government organizations are adjusting. These
organizations have devoted their activity to the protection of
the person in today's difficult, rigid and even severe world.
Many international pacts, agreements and conventions on human
rights and freedoms were signed. There was considerably improved
the integration of Ukraine in the international right-defence
gear, real steps to increase the warranties of fulfillment of
international obligations in human rights sphere were made.
Much more forums are conducted with the dominant idea of
protection of Ukrainian citizen's and foreigner's (which are on
the territory of Ukraine) rights and freedoms.
New magazines on human rights are established, lectures are
read, special and optonal cources on human rights are organized,
educational programs are distributed. Much attention is paid to
the educational aspect of the problem. National and
international conferences and symposiums, "round tables" and
readings on urgent problems of development of institute of human
rights and protection of political, social and economic rights,
freedoms and legal interests of the person are carried out.
In other words "the requirement of all-round maintenance of
human rights and freedoms" has become not simply a line of
preamble of the Declaration of State Independence of Ukraine but
the program of state and political activity of citizens of
Ukraine and foreigners, which permanently or temporary stay in
But it will be an error to overestimate the first shifts in the
right-defence sphere. Despite all the achievements in this
sphere the situation of the person in Ukraine remains hard and
unprotected. There are a lot of reasons and there is a great
number of explanations of this fact.
It is possible to refer to the absence of a legal state with
precisely distributed functions of legislative, executive and
judicial powers. Frankly speaking, these branches are imperfect
because of the political traditions in all the contries of the
former USSR . For example, the judicial power continues to act
with the main idea of punishment, instead of protection of
rights and freedoms of citizens.
Frequently jealous relations between right-defence organizations
make public right defence movement weak. It is not so influental
and effective as should be.
The habit to make acts in the field of human rights
propagandistic by character has overload them by political,
moral or simply ideological admonitions. As it frequently
happens it is heavy to separate from them really legal
statements, it sometimes makes impossible protection of rights,
honour and interests of the person.
As a rule there remains inconsistency of national legal acts with
international pacts and conventions on human rights. The principle
of priority of international norms in the matters of human rights
is recognized by the law, but is not applied or it is applying
very seldom in practice.
We have a selective approach to recognition of international
obligations in the sphere of protection of rights, that is not
allowed in practice of other states. Just due to such approach
we did not ratify, have not joined, have not accepted or not
approved a significant number of important international pacts,
The plenty of ratified by Ukraine international pacts does not act
concerning our state because we have used the stipulated in them
gear of realization in a very specific way. In the international
contractual activity of Ukraine the negative tendency to sign
international pacts on human rights without output of domestic
gear of their realization was expanded.
The practice not to publish the text of ratified documents and
conventions in the sphere of human rights or to publish by a
small edition or with a 5-10 year delay has become rather
It is possible to consider natural the inconsistency of the
Ukrainian legislation with international obligations of state.
Practically only in the last years the authority of international
pacts on human rights has become admitted by our officials.
Some integral rights of the person are absolutly unknown to our
state or are admitted only on the paper.
It is necessary to achieve the real, guaranteed maintenance of
such integral rights and freedoms as: right to life, right to
freedom of opinions and the free manifestation of them, right to
ideological (with exception of the ideological movements,
forbidden by modern international legislation), religious,
cultural freedom, right to participation in political life and
management, right to freedom of print, to reception and
distribution of information, right to strike, right to healthy
environment, right to an acceptable living standard, necessary
for health support, well-being, honour, right to access
depending on abilities and professional training to any posts in
state bodies, establishments, organizations, right to protect
rights and freedoms according to the legislation, right to
property indemnification of moral damage, caused by illegal
actions of state bodies, by officials and other persons, right
to leave the country and to return to it, right to appeal to the
court in the case of illegal arrest, detention, refuse in the
opening or closing of a criminal case, right of citizens to free
movement and to choose a place of residing in the country, right
to property indemnification in case of illegal detention,
arrest, conviction, illegal dismissal from a post, illegal
location in mental establishments, etc.
The named rights are usual for the world practice. We have to
lead the legislation of Ukraine to conformity with international
standards in the sphere of human rights but this step will not
give necessary results without solution of a problem how to
increase literacy of the population in the sphere of
international standards. The lack of information in this sphere
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